Different types of fingerprint patterns

The impression of patterns at the top of the humans finger is called fingerprint. The patterns consist of the ridges of human skin. In all human beings fingerprint patterns are unique due to the friction ridges.

Friction ridges are not controlled by the genetically. Which makes the fingerprints different and unique. As we have discussed, what is fingerprint now we will discuss types of fingerprint and types of fingerprint patterns.

Types of fingerprints

Generally,  the basic purpose of fingerprints is to identify the persons individually. For example, a person who is applying for a job will be identified with his/her fingerprints to know about his background. Fingerprints are the source to verify if this specific person has some criminal background in the past.  Fingerprints have three types which are described in the following:

  • Latent fingerprint
  • Plastic fingerprint
  • Patent fingerprint

Latent fingerprint

A fingerprint that is not easily visible to human eye is called as Latent fingerprint. These fingerprints can be seen with the help of chemical processing.

Patent fingerprint

A patent fingerprint is in which liquid, blood and ink gets left when  you touch any surface. It can be easily visible with human eye.

Plastic fingerprint

It is the type of fingerprint Which has three dimensions in impressions. It can be made with your fingers when you press some wax, tar and soap. These fingerprints also can easily be seen with human eye. They don’t require special chemical processing.

Types of fingerprint patterns

Fingerprints are now mostly used by the investigation agencies due to the unique patterns of fingerprints. In addition, Agencies can easily caught the culprits with the help of fingerprints. We will discuss all three types of fingerprint patterns here that are described below:

  • Whorls
  • Arches
  • Loops

These are the three main and different types of fingerprint patterns . These three types have further sub categories.


Whorls are found in spiral or circular shape patterns. This type of fingerprint patterns looks like whirlpools. Fingerprint patterns consist of 25 to 35 percent of whorls.

Here are some sub categories of whorls described below:

  • Plain
  • Central pocket
  • Accidental


Plain  whorls have a shape of a circuit. Consisting on the ridges with deltas. These whorls are also in the circular or spiral shape. Plain whorls are very simple and common.

Central pocket whorl

Central pocket whorls are also circular in shape making a circuit, they consist on the two deltas and friction ridges. In this whorl, line in the circuit does not touch the central pocket.


This type of fingerprint pattern consists on two different types of fingerprint patterns. It has more than two deltas.

This is the reason when the characteristics of different ridges gets matched, it will be known as accidental whorl.


This type of fingerprint pattern is not so commonly found fingerprint. It has a shape of hill. Arches fingerprint pattern are like the pattern of waves. In all the fingerprints they make five percent of patterns.

Here are some sub categories of arches described below:

  • Plain
  • Tented
  • Radial
  • Ulnar
  • Double


In this type of pattern ridges enter like a wave from one side, and getting outside in opposite direction. Also, It does not contain a ridge like looping.


A Tented arch fingerprint pattern is a pattern which contains specific requirements of good pattern of loop. Also, when the two ridges gather together and make an angle, the resulting fingerprint patterns is known as tented arch.


This type of fingerprint Patterns are usually differentiated because of the radius flow in the opposite direction. 


This pattern of fingerprint have a loop that opens in the direction of ulna side of your hand.


Two Unique and separate loop together makes a double loop fingerprint pattern. It consist of more then one separate and unique shoulders , deltas and ridges. Finally, They all make a complete circuit.


These pattern form a shape of a loop. In addition, These loops are further divided into radial  and lunar. This loop pattern fingerprint have types of pattern almost 60 percent.

Loops have some further categories which we will discuss here

  • Radial loop
  • Ulnar loop


Radial fingerprints consists on the flow of patterns, they usually goes in the direction of thumb of hand.


This sub category of loop fingerprint pattern goes towards the bone of ulna, in the direction of little finger.

How fingerprints work

Earlier we have discussed about fingerprints and what are the types of fingerprints. Here now we will discuss about the working of fingerprints . In simple words a fingerprint is a print of your finger. Whenever you touch anything with your fingers. The mark of your fingers left behind on that specific surface that you touch.

In addition, Mostly fingerprints are not easily visible. Further, We need a proper process of chemical to see the fingerprints. And with the help of chemical process we not only get to know about fingerprints,  we get to know about the person what he have eaten and what drugs he has taken.

Importance of fingerprints

With the help of fingerprints you can secure your mobile data, laptop data and even your homes. Furthermore, Fingerprints helps to secure your things and privacy.

Further, Fingerprints plays a vital role in identifying culprits. Because of DNA, fingerprints has a key role in identifying and reaching to the culprits easily. Fingerprints are helpful and being used by many agencies in their work.


Finally, The impressions made by human touch due to its ridges present on the surface of human skin is called fingerprint. it is used to identify the persons, because of its unique and different patterns as we have discussed earlier all the types of fingerprint patterns.

In addition, Every human have a unique fingerprint which remains same throughout the life of a human and does not changes with age.

Fingeare not mostly used for personal security. But they are also used by the different investigation agencies to reach the culprits. Ultimately we can say overall fingerprints role is very important in human life.

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